Crossing the Language Barrier to Make that Daily Progress in Freemasonry

Crossing the Language Barrier to Make that Daily Progress in Freemasonry

When I was a very new Freemason, I unintentionally allowed the language barrier to create errors in two of my early papers.

In one paper, I referred to the “broached thurnel” as “Freemasonry’s lost immovable jewel.” In the other paper, I referred to the “fulminate,” used to create a bright flash during a crucial point in an initiation, as “an old Freemasonic tradition,” strongly implying – because I believed it was – that it was no longer used in Freemasonry anywhere.

I was wrong on both counts. I’ve seen the broached thurnel is almost every French Lodge I’ve visited. While I’ve never seen a fulminate used in a French Lodge, I did see one in a store room there and was assured that some Lodges in Paris do still include it in their work.

It really doesn’t matter that other largely-English language scholars have made the same mistake about both of these items, that I could cite their works and still turn out quite a thorough paper. That I was wrong because I didn’t know I was wrong doesn’t explain it away.

Ignorance not only is no excuse; it’s dangerous. Freemasons are the shock troops in the war against ignorance. It is not a good thing for a Freemason to spread ignorance rather than fight it.

Neither paper ever was published. I doubt they ever will be, and with these errors born of ignorance, that’s a good thing.

I’m not aware of any Masonic tradition that does not direct Freemasons to make a daily progress in Masonry, which generally is reckoned as spending part of each day learning something about the Craft that the Freemason didn’t know before. In addition to the seven liberal arts, early 20th Century Masonic scholar Roscoe Pound, in the April 1915 edition of The Builder, identified five areas appropriate for Masonic Study: Ritual, History, Philosophy, Symbolism, and Jurisprudence.

Certainly, for Freemasons in Anglo-centric countries, it’s no real problem to find Masonic works in English. However, making that daily progress only in one’s mother tongue, cuts a Freemason off from progress to be gained in other parts of the world, and necessarily, renders their efforts in isolation to become isolated, provincial even. That leaves the Freemason open to the sorts of errors that I made and, worse, stunts that progress.

I believe it is incumbent upon Freemasons to open their daily progress enough to include works from other languages.

My observation is that English-only Masonic readers seem to be OK with pictures sourced from other language cultures. Images based on engravings by Louis Travenol, better known as “Léonard Gabanon,” of French Blue Lodge Masonry long have been popular illustrations in English-language Masonic books and papers, particularly in general works about the first three degrees. Daniel Beresniak’s very popular Masonic picture book “Symbols of Freemasonry” was first published in 2000 but clearly uses delightful images sourced from French Freemasonry.

Images, it seems, don’t become trapped behind the language barriers but words do.

And yet, there’s plenty in French Masonic scholarship in particular to motivate an otherwise English-only reader to blow the dust off a French-to-English dictionary or keep a browser window open to Google Translator. When I realized my errors in those two papers were caused by my ignorance of French Masonry, it didn’t take me long to find the works of Swiss occultist Joseph Paul Oswald Wirth, who wrote extensively about the Blue Lodge. More recently, I’ve been studying Philippe Langlet’s 2009 “Les sources chrétiennes de la légende d’Hiram” (comes with a very cool CD) and Joseph Castelli’s 2006 “Le Nouveau Regulateur du Macon – Rite Français 1801.”

One of my personal favorite works in French Masonic scholarship is Maurice Bouchard and Philippe Michel’s “Le Rit Français d’origine 1785,” published this past July. That was a follow up to Michel’s “Genèse du Rite Écossais Ancien et Accepté,” the most recent edition of which was published in February and also resides on one of my shelves.

Michel’s most recent work details what also is known as the “Primordial of France” (Rit Primordial de France) or even “canonical” (canonique) French Rite so widely worked in France today. It isn’t often a Masonic reader can read which paragraphs of a rite are connected to what passage or receive an explanation of how any rite was reconstituted, complete with columns, tables, symbols. And if the English reader allows the French language of the work to be a barrier, then the reader won’t get any of that at all.

I’m not suggesting that no efforts have been made at cross-cultural/language research in Freemasonry, because there has been a limited – though notable – amount of that. Lilith Mahmud’s “The Brotherhood of Freemason Sisters,” about gender history in Italian Freemasonry, was published by University of Chicago Press in 2014.

A very good sequel to Margaret Jacob’s 1991 “Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe” and the UCLA History Department Professor’s 2006 “The Radical Enlightenment – Pantheists, Freemasons and Republicans” is her 2011 “Les Premières franc-maçonnes au siècle des Lumières.” That book, co-authored in French with Arizona State University’s Janet Burke, was published in French by the Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, prefaced by noted French Masonic scholars Cécile Révauger, Jean-Pierre Bacot, and Laure Caille.

Masonic works in languages other than English certainly are readily available, especially online. Detrad offers the very best in French language Masonic work, I’ve had delightfully opportunities to drool over books in their brick-and-mortar location next door to the Grand Orient de France in Rue Cadet, Paris. An entire paper was written in 2008 about Spanish-language Masonic books printed in the U.S. The Spanish language Masonic research journal “Revista de Estudios Históricos de la Masonería” actively produces Masonic works in that language.

The tools are there to do this work, the individual Freemason just needs to do it.

Yes, overcoming the language barrier as part of one’s daily progress in Freemasonry is work, and it’s far from easy. However, no one who is work shy should become a Freemasonry – no more than anyone who becomes a Freemason should become lazy. The results are worth it but actually doing that work is its own reward. The work is, after all, the thing.

 

 

 

A United Endeavor: Universal Co-Masonry’s Five-Year Plan

A United Endeavor: Universal Co-Masonry’s Five-Year Plan

Robert Kennedy once stated, “Moral courage is a rarer commodity than bravery in battle or great intelligence, but it is the one essential quality to change the world.”  We, as Freemasons, know something about changing the world, but how serious are we about completing the work we are called to do? Do we possess that “moral courage” necessary to stand up to ignorance and change the world?

Universal Co-Masonry is taking the steps to create a better world through the implementation of an innovative Five-Year Plan. The plan was released during the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry’s Annual Summer Workshop at its headquarters in Larkspur, Colorado held from August 5th through August 12th of this year. Brothers arrived from Lodges throughout the Americas to attend the workshop, a semi-regular tradition in the Order for more than a century. 

Universal Co-Masonry’s Most Sovereign Grand Commander, Brother Magdalena I. Cumsille announced an ambitious and detailed Five-Year Plan to accomplish the task at hand. Speaking to those assembled, she stated, “It is our duty as Masons to make a better world for, not only ourselves, but for those that come after us.” In his address which followed, President Matias Cumsille issued this call to action: “Let it be a united endeavor: a place where Freemasons toil together in the great work.”

The work of the Five Year Plan is separated into seven divisions of labor, including: 1) Expand the Masonic Philosophical Society, 2) Establish the Masonic Publishing Company, 3) Institute the Masonic College of Arts and Sciences, 4) Found the Masonic Order of Service, 5) Implement the Order’s Energy Initiative, 6) Finalize the Order’s Technology Initiative, and 7) Commence the Order’s Historical Document Preservation Program.MPS Logo

The Masonic Philosophical Society

The first step in the Five-Year Plan is to expand the reach of the existing Masonic Philosophical Society  (M.P.S.) to include additional online platforms. The mission of the M.P.S. is to destroy ignorance through the advancement of research and understanding of the sciences, arts, and humanities. Utilizing online video conferencing technology, the M.P.S. will be better equipped to fulfill its mission across the globe. Since the commencement of the first online study center, individuals from around the world have been able to participate in the educational opportunities, including men and women from India, Madagascar, Germany, Spain, England, and Canada. “We are planning on establishing a European online M.P.S. study center, as well as a new physically-located M.P.S. Study Center in Asia,” explained President Matias Cumsille. 

The Masonic Philosophical Society was founded in January of 2009 to provide interactive educational opportunities for adults beyond the nationally required post-secondary schooling.  Since 2009, the M.P.S. has expanded its operation to include 25 centers in North and South America. With more than 60,000 members, the M.P.S. has created a worldwide movement and community. To learn more about the Society, follow the online M.P.S. Journal, interact with the global community, or inquire about membership, visit the M.P.S. website or the M.P.S. Facebook page.  

The Masonic Publishing Company

Another ongoing project expected to get an evolutionary boost in the next five years is The Masonic Publishing Company: an innovative and independent publisher of books. MPC Meme“Its objective is to publish rare, esoteric, occult and philosophical books,” President Matias Cumsille added. 

Created to bring new light to the great enigmatic works of the past, M.P.C. books include new material added by Freemasons to inspire modern inquiry. The M.P.C. is the proud publisher of a selection of books which have been handpicked to inspire our readers to reach their fullest potential. One might call it a Must-Read List for Seekers of Wisdom, including members of the Brotherhood of Freemasonry, which encircles the globe. 

The Masonic College of Arts and Sciences

Another step in the Five Year Plan is the formation of a Masonic College to provide education for seekers throughout the world. The Masonic College of Arts and Sciences (M.C.A.S.) is a private liberal arts college which will offer educational courses based on the synthesis of Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science.

The College is oriented specifically for those individuals in search of higher understanding beyond that found in traditional universities and dogmatic institutions. M.C.A.S. endorses the Integrated Approach to its studies and discourages Reductionism – the approach used in an overwhelming majority of higher educational institutions.

“Initially, courses will be online, and we will offer two undergraduate degrees, both founded on the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences,” President Matias Cumsille stated. “We will be working to ensure the accreditation of the college through the Colorado Department of Higher Education in the next five years.”

Further Steps in the Five-Year Plan

Other initiatives in the Five-Year Plan include the formation of the Masonic Order of Service, detailed in an earlier blog, an Energy Initiative to make the Order’s headquarters more self-sustaining through the installation of solar and wind power, and a Technology Initiative to update the structure of the Order for dissemination of Masonic studies. The final step of the Order’s plan is to preserve historical documents as part of the Order’s Historical Document Preservation Program.


 “Let us begin the Work. We cannot wait, for time is a gift rarely used wisely.” 

— Most Sovereign Grand Commander, Magdalena I. Cumsille

Ask Not What Masonry Can Do For You: Universal Co-Masonry’s Call for Greater Service

Ask Not What Masonry Can Do For You: Universal Co-Masonry’s Call for Greater Service

A call to greater service is part of the vision for the next five years detailed during the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry’s Annual Summer Workshop at its headquarters in Larkspur, Colorado earlier this month.

The annual address by the Order’s Most Sovereign Grand Commander (M.S.G.C.), The Very Ills..... Bro... Magdalena I. Cumsille 33o, announced the call to action – illustrating the Order’s unwavering dedication to serve and assist all of Humanity. In a nod to the late President John F. Kennedy, the M.S.G.C. inspired the assembly with the following message: 

“Ask not what Freemasonry can do for you. Ask what you can do for Freemasonry.”

As part of the M.S.G.C.’s plan, the Institution of a Masonic Order of Service is a vital component of the Order’s Strategic Plan for the next five years.  The details of the plan were included in a letter from the Order’s President Matias Cumsille, issued to the Brethren of Universal Co-Masonry during the workshop.

“It has been a long-held sentiment of Masonry throughout the ages that the responsibility of service does not rely on the depth of our pockets but on the working of our hands,” Cumsille said in his letter. “The institution of the Masonic Order of Service is being established to serve our various communities in the physical world,” Cumsille wrote in his letter.

HQ office building

Headquarters of the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry in Larkspur, Colorado.

The new service order will be available to the larger community outside of Universal Co-Masonry to request assistance, Cumsille said. “The needs of our communities are vast, and we are a source of giving hearts and giving hands,” he said.

“Masters of Lodges can work through the Masonic Order of Service to find Lodge activities of this nature as well as individual Brothers who have a passion for this type of service who wish to sign up on their own. Volunteers are required who can supply the hands through which the Masonic Order of Service will work.”

The announcement was part of a larger vision of and for the Order as it heads into the third decade of the 21st Century, a plan for the next five years announced during summer workshop on the campus in the small central Colorado town August 5th – 12th. Brothers arrived from Lodges throughout the Americas to attend the workshop, a semi-regular tradition in the Order for more than a century.

Other announcements during the workshop included the ongoing formation of a Masonic College of Art and Science to provide education for seekers throughout the world and an energy initiative for the headquarters’ campus. On the later, plans were announced to make headquarters 100% sustainable through renewable energy installation, as an example to other organizations to protect the environment, as well as reducing utility costs.

Larkspur

Aerial View of the Headquarters of the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry

Service, as a Masonic ideal, is nothing new in the Order but external service has been less heard of in Universal Co-Masonry since its origins in the late 19th Century, though there examples, instigated mostly by individual lodges, can be recalled in the Order’s history.

For instance, in 1923, a Lodge of the Order in California joined with male-only Orders to build a facility at Berkeley University to provide a facility for the use of children of Masons attending that state university. Over the years, Brothers have participated in local causes, such of food and clothing drives, have funded scholarships and participated in other community efforts. Most recently, individual lodges in the Order have been patrons of the arts and provided money and hands for concerns nearest their premises.

ME Building HQ

Headquarters of the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry

The new Masonic Order of Service will provide the means to better organize those formerly informal and local efforts. Moreover, the new initiative will improve ongoing efforts through a more centralized process, as well as, work with other ongoing initiatives in the Order, Cumsille said in his letter.

“As a United Federation of Lodges, we have an enormous synergy to draw from and, as such, there is a place for every Brother in these institutions, programs and improvements,” Cumsille’s letter stated.

Cumsille urged no Brother to “stand on the sidelines.”

“The members who have joined in the efforts for promote the Great Work in these areas need more Brothers to work alongside them. Those who want to see the world we all envision made manifest, to make perfecting humanity a reality rather than a beautiful sentiment, are asked to join in these efforts.”

The Wisconsin Persecution

The Wisconsin Persecution

It isn’t every day that a criminal investigator turns up at the door, any door. When the investigator turns up and wants to see – and then confiscates – a Masonic Lodge’s charter, that’s rarer still.

That happened the evening of Friday, 20 August 1943, at the home of 60-year-old widow Annette Schmitt and her grown daughter, Marcella, on North Franklin Place in Milwaukee. They were far too intimidated by the grizzled detective from the city’s police department to object too much when he took the charter, and them, downtown.

As with most modern examples of persecution against Co-Freemasonry by male-only Masons in North America, no one was physically harmed, and it largely was words, most of them polite. The incident in no way resembled flame wars on Internet Masonic forums and elsewhere online today. Anyone expecting brass knuckles and drive-by shootings will be disappointed, but we are, after all, talking about Freemasons. It simply won’t get that ugly.

However, the Wisconsin persecution of 1943/44, or “the Wisconsin situation” as it was known among Co-Masons at the time, is unique in that the police, a county district attorney, and the Wisconsin Secretary of State’s office were involved. Persecution of Co-Masons under the color of Profane law is, thankfully, quite rare. This is how one of those incidents happened.

It began a few weeks earlier when the Brothers of Lodge Amen-Ra No. 584, who’d been meeting less formally in Milwaukee for a while, decided they’d grown numerous enough to justify meeting in an actual lodge setting. Annette Schmitt, Amen-Ra’s Senior Warden, and her daughter Marcella, Amen-Ra’s Secretary and coordinator for a local vocational school, were designated to find a good place. They shopped around and soon found a space in the Milwaukee Odd Fellows Temple.

The room had raised platforms and, though it was more square than oblong, it was generally arranged enough to be adapted for a meeting of Freemasons and “the carrying out of the ceremonial in a dignified and beautiful manner.” That is how North American Co-Freemasonry’s Grand Treasurer and District Deputy of the Great Lakes District, Sidney Cook, described it.[1] The Brothers had to have been impressed by the floor: terrazzo stone in concrete.

Cook gave formal approval of the room and suggested the Brothers of Amen-Ra secure a two-year lease. The Odd Fellows rental agent accepted a check for the first month’s rent and all seemed to be arranged, nothing appeared amiss.

Perhaps the first clue should have been comments by the rental agent, a “Miss Purdy,” who was a member of the Order of Eastern Star in Wisconsin. It also turned out that the Chairman of the Odd Fellows Board was a past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin.

It isn’t clear how trouble began but someone was interested in making it.

A few days after arranging for the lease, Miss Purdy let Annette Schmitt know that they needed more details about the nature of the work. Annette Schmitt gave Purdy a brochure about Co-Freemasonry, the type of brochure that Co-Masons are known to carry around. Shortly after that, Annette Schmitt said she got a call from a “Mr. Rumple” from the Better Business Bureau who wanted her to come see him. “He is also a Mason,” Annette Schmitt said.[2]

A week after that, on 19 August, William F. Weiler, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin[3] arrived unannounced at the Schmitt home.

“During the conversation, he informed us that we were infringing upon the rights of their Order, that we were a spurious and clandestine organization, that we could not call our organization Masonry, and that we could not work under the lodge system,” Annette Schmitt said in her subsequent letter to Cook. Weiler also named a Wisconsin statute he said Amen-Ra was violating but didn’t provide a copy.

Weiler seemed to think that was that, though it’s hard to imagine why he thought saying it made it all so. Perhaps he felt emboldened by the Schmitt’s response, which was to be thoroughly gobsmacked and to let him know that speaking for their Order, let alone all of Co-Freemasonry, was well above their pay grade. Which, as a Freemason, Past Grand Master and a current Grand Secretary, he should have known.

Perhaps it suddenly occurred to him. Weiler then demanded a meeting between “our Grand Officers,” and told the Schmitts he could set up a meeting with the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin Grand Master Louis D. Potter.

For their part, the Schmitts assumed Weiler wanted to set up that meeting between and their own Order’s Grand Commander, Edith Armour, and they wrote that same day to Cook, following protocol, to see what could be arranged. However, this seems not to have been the case. The male-only Freemasons involved in this episode, as we’ll see, largely ignored Armour and, instead, continued to harass the Schmitts and developed a bit of a fixation on Cook.

Granted, Cook was a Past Grand Senior Warden in Co-Freemasonry and was then Grand Treasurer, but he certainly wasn’t the highest ranking Co-Mason in North America. He also appears to have worked very hard to avoid even the appearance of usurping Armour’s Masonic authority in North America, which explains at least part of the communications issues that were coming.

The Schmitts, possibly to get Weiler out of their home, apparently at least mentioned Cook to Weiler. They may have even provided Cook’s address in Wheaton, Illinois, because Weiler fired off a letter to Cook postmarked 8:30 p.m. the same day. “I have information that your organization, under the name ‘Co-Masonry’ is entering Wisconsin with the intention of establishing lodges or local units,” his letter to Cook said. Weiler asked for pamphlets explaining Co-Freemasonry, as well as copies of the Order’s bylaws, petitions for membership, “and other literature that may be available.” He stated, “it is quite imperative that we have this information at once.”

Cook, when he received Weiler’s letter, immediately complied, sending out the requested literature. He also wrote the Amen-Ra’s Master and the Order’s future Grand Commander, Helen Wycherley, about what was going on. Given the speed at which things were moving, Wycherley may not yet have heard what was going on.

In any case, Cook was more perplexed than concerned. “I suppose we will talk this all over at the end of the week,” he said in his next letter to Armour. “You have had experiences just like this before and know exactly what should be done about them.”

Meanwhile, as Weiler’s and Schmitt’s snail mail inched their way to Cook. Back on August 20th, at the Schmitts home that night, there was a knock at the door.

“Events took shape rapidly, and the police were on our trail even before we had the opportunity to contact you,” Annette Schmitt said in her letter to Cook the following day. “We told Mr. Weiler that we were going to write you immediately.”

Either “immediately” had not been good enough for Weiler or the fellow at the door was acting on his own. The latter seems unlikely but the remaining record doesn’t make it entirely clear.

If he wasn’t acting on his own, Detective Lt. Joseph A. Schalla, then a 32° Mason under the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, seems an interesting choice to send after the Schmitts on the evening 20 August 1943. Then 43, he was a World War I veteran severely wounded in action in December of 1918[4] and became a police officer in 1928, joining the Old North Milwaukee Police Department. He established his law enforcement cred working in the department’s hold up and burglary squad. He soon moved on to dealing with more hardened criminals, thieves, rapists and murderers, as attested by dozens of news clippings remaining from the period.

In 1952, Schalla would be reprimanded by his superiors for threatening a local news reporter who wanted to publish a story about a local politician that Schalla did not want published.[5] Whatever else could be said about him, Schalla was no one to cross.

The widow Schmitt and her daughter clearly found him intimidating. “We showed him the Charter,” Annette Schmitt said in her next letter to Cook. The Schmitts might have used Amen-Ra’s charter as something of a shield,and it clearly got the police detective’s attention. Schalla also wanted to know how many members the Order had, the amount expected in dues, initiation fees and other information, not all of which the Schmitts could have told him. They recommended Schalla get information from higher ranking Brothers than themselves.

Not getting all his questions answered, Schalla took the Schmitts and Amen-Ra’s charter to the police department. It isn’t certain the Schmitts actually were arrested but it is clear they didn’t feel they could refuse to go. There they were introduced to another male-only Freemason, Chief of Police Joseph Kluchesky[6], who took a good look at the charter but said he didn’t have time to read the brochures on Co-Freemasonry that the Schmitts offered.

The police apparently thought Amen-Ra was a swindling operation, which could possibly explain, more than their Masonic ties, why the two officers had taken an interested. “It was evident that when the complaint was made to the Police Department, it was on that of soliciting, for that seemed to be the basis upon which the investigation was made,” Annette Schmitt said in her letter to Cook.

The police made a photostat copy of the charter but backed down shortly after closely examining it. Either Schalla or Kluchesky commented: “Well, we can’t stop you. Whoever drew up that charter knew what they were doing.[7]” The Milwaukee police exit the story at this point.

Finding themselves free to go, the Schmitts went to a Western Union office and sent a telegram to Cook, letting him know to expect another snail mail to follow-up on the one already on its way. A flurry of mail, much of it crossing enroute, followed but everyone seemed to be caught up by the middle of the following week, during which Armour sent a four-page letter to Weiler describing Co-Freemasonry’s long history in North American and the larger world and describing other cases in which male-only Masons tried to interfere with Co-Freemasonry and failed.

If Weiler answered that letter, there’s no evidence of it and quite a few references in what record does remain suggests that Armour never received a reply.

Despite the police involvement, Cook still was not very alarmed. “Bro. Cook feels that there is no cause for alarm and that the matter will be straightened out satisfactorily in due course,” Ann Werth, a member Amen-Ra Lodge then in Wheaton, wrote to Annette Schmitt on 23 August. “I can imagine that you might have been a bit surprise to have the police visit you!” 

Cook’s own advice to the Schmitts, as well as other Amen-Ra members was:

Should you be questioned further, just give such information as seems pertinent to the case and necessary, using your own good judgment in the matter, as you have been doing.

He also stalled for time, telling the male-only Masons who wanted to talk to him that it would have to wait until the middle of September[8].

While his tone in that letter was soothing enough, Cook was more firm in his next letter to Weiler. Cook wrote:

I question very much whether the establishment of a lodge of The American Federation of Human Rights in the city of Milwaukee would in any way come within the jurisdiction of or conflict with the activities of organizations already established there. However, if  you will be good enough to give me full data as to the basis of your questioning, I shall be glad to cooperate in arriving at an understanding.

If Weiler answered that letter, the location of the reply currently is unknown.

Wycherley wrote to Cook on 31 August, wondering whether Amen-Ra should proceed with its next scheduled meeting on 12 September. “It seems to me that to hold a meeting while the legality is in question would get us in more trouble,” Wycherley wrote. “And since it is little over a week till [sic] the scheduled meeting, I ought to do something at once if it is to be postponed.”

Cook replied that Amen-Ra should tough it out, still speaking with reassurance that little was likely to happen.

Cook also contacted the Wisconsin Secretary of State’s office asking about the statute Weiler claimed existed and that the Milwaukee Co-Masons allegedly were violating. Cook also asked if there were any laws in the state pertaining to meetings by small  groups of men and women for study and ceremony.

Wisconsin Secretary of State, and former Governor, Fred R. Zimmerman replied the following day that he knew of none.

It was during this time that Armour, her first letter apparently ignored, wrote another letter to Weiler. Armour wrote:

Since writing you on August 23, in reply to your inquiry of August 20 regarding the Co-Masonic Order, it has been brought to my attention that you have made claims to our members in Milwaukee as to the prerogatives of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, attempting to interfere with their legitimate activities, and have made unwarranted statements as to the character of our organization.

Armour again provided a brief history of Co-Freemasonry in North America and pointed out that just because the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin  didn’t – as it doesn’t today – recognize Co-Freemasonry doesn’t mean Co-Masons aren’t Freemasons and certainly doesn’t negate the legal rights of  Co-Masons in Wisconsin. She again pointed to similar cases over the previous half century in which male-only Masons tried to interfere with  Co-Freemasonry in North America and failed, including a 1907 incident in which male-only Masons maneuvered the arrest of two Co-masons. In that case, the male-only Masons’ efforts failed in the courts, setting some interesting precedents.

The entire effort in Wisconsin was equally pointless, Armour wrote:

Our organization could not possibly harm or damage the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin. Our influence is neither demoralizing nor contaminating. We teach and practice good citizenship. We prohibit soliciting members and we do not permit applicants to join under the impression that they will gain any social prestige or commercial advantages. On the contrary, they are told of the hardship and disadvantages of pioneer work.

Male-only Masons who’ve tried to affiliate with Co-Masonic Lodges have been turned away, “explaining our situation and telling these applicants to remain in their own Lodges,” Armour wrote.

Armour’s 4 September letter, like her first letter, apparently was ignored.

Meanwhile, the check for the lodge’s first month rent for the room that the Odd Fellows decided the Co-Masons couldn’t use had been cashed and there was no getting those funds back. “Looks like we are just out that amount,” Wycherley wrote to Cook on 8 September.

There was no further word that week from the male-only Masons and the Milwaukee Co-Masons seem to have settled down as their 12 September meeting date approached. The unpleasantness appeared to have blow over.

It hadn’t.

The Schmitts received a letter, postmarked on 10 September, from the office of Milwaukee County District Attorney James J. Kerwin, ordering them to a  meeting at 3 p.m. Thursday, 16 September, “without fail” with Second Deputy District Attorney Charles J. Kersten. It was at this time that Co-Masons found out what Wisconsin statute Weiler had been talking about all along.

Wisconsin statute 343.251, long since repealed, made it illegal to “willfully wear the insignia, rosette, or badge or any imitation thereof” of various groups and orders, including “Free Masons [sic].” However, the statute did not define who “Free Masons” are, a topic any Masonic grand officer would be unwise to let Profane courts sort out.

That notwithstanding, the Schmitts were summoned to the District Attorney’s office, which prompted Werth to write a hasty note to Cook alerting him to the latest development. The Schmitts, Werth said, had had about as much of the Wisconsin Situation as they could stand and “they are quite concerned” about being summoned to the district attorney’s office.

Marcella Schmitt called the district attorney’s office in an attempt to put off the appointment so that someone else – anyone else – could represent the Order. It was during that call that Marcella Schmitt received some stunning news. “She said that they [Marcella Schmitt and her mother] had been told they should not hold any meetings and she didn’t know what they should do about the one scheduled for Sunday – tomorrow,” Werth wrote to Cook.

Werth then asked a question that had gone unasked for weeks: Why were the male-only Masons of Wisconsin and Profane law enforcement harassing a widow and her daughter who had no authority to speak for the Order? “Isn’t there some way that Marcella and her mother can get the authorities to work through the Grand Officers instead of riding them about it?” Werth asked in her note. “Marcella was afraid that if they held the meeting tomorrow someone would interrupt them with a search warrant.”

While the record remains incomplete, it seems the Brothers of Amen-Ra did quietly meet in a location other than the Odd Fellows Hall on 12 September 1943 without “someone” showing up “with a search warrant.” Meeting elsewhere might be, at least in part, why that didn’t happen. It could also be that the proponents of this legal action didn’t want to go that far.

When the Schmitts, with great trepidation, turned up for the demanded appointment at the county’s district attorney’s office, they found the deputy district attorney had flaked out on them. The Schmitts were told the deputy district attorney was “in court on an important case.”

“We called again today and the operator said that the case would not be closed before Saturday of this week, which means that we might be able to see him the early part of next week,” Marcella Schmitt wrote to Cook on 23 September, 1943.

The Brothers of Amen-Ra also received a veiled threat from “one of the investigators” to hold no more meetings because “it would be best not to aggravate the situation just at this time.”[9]

The County Deputy District Attorney, Kersten, didn’t become available to meet with the Schmitts until 29 September, almost two weeks after the date he’s originally demanded, and even that meeting was “for a very short time,” Marcella Schmitt said in her letter to Cook the same day. Kersten for the first time made formal what Milwaukee Co-Masons had been scrambling to find out on their own, that a complaint had been made against them by the Weiler as Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin and Potter, its Grand Master.

Schmitt noted that Kersten said he wasn’t a Freemason, “was not well-informed on the Masonic Order” and observed that he had trouble remembering the Wisconsin Grand Master’s name.

It was at this point that it was revealed Kersten had been present back in August when Detective Shalla had hauled the Schmitts and the Amen-Ra’s charter to the police department and that Kersten had examined the charter at that time.

That seems to have been all that came out of the 29 September meeting with Kersten as Kersten decided then he would rather “the grand officers”  be present. Perhaps it occurred to him, as it seemed to not be occurring to others, that the Schmitts were not qualified to speak for all of North  American Co-Freemasonry, but it also seems that no one from the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin was at the meeting either. So, he pointedly instructed the Schmitts to contact Cook to see when he could be available for a meeting, which is odd because Cook still wasn’t a high ranking grand officer. Armour, again, was ignored.

Kersten also declined a copy of Armour’s letter to Weiler.

Though he wasn’t present, Cook might have noticed something in Kersten’s realization about the Schmitts. There might be something to gain should Kersten observe the male-only Masons were acting like bullies in their treatment of the Schmitts.

Or, perhaps, Cook just wanted little as possible to do with “the Wisconsin Situation.”

For whatever reason, Cook suddenly was more interested in the Schmitts taking the lead on behalf of their Lodge and the Order. In his 1 October letter to Marcella Schmitt, Cook said he would be too busy to make an appointment with Kersten. Cook wrote:

I suggest, therefore, that you proceed, having no fear whatever of the outcome. One suggestion that I would make to you is that you make for yourself another copy of the Ills. Bro. Armour’s[10] letter to Mr. Weiler, so that if you hand one to Mr. Kersten you will still have one to use in the  discussion.

Miss Armour’s letter answers very satisfactorily the suggestion of ‘borrowed insignia, titles, etc.’ – borrowed from whom and when? All of these  were regularly conferred at the inception of the Order, handed down from the same sources as those from which Mr. Weiler’s organization claims descent and authority.

It’s easy to imagine what the timid and stressed Schmitts thought of that. Probably Cook imagined it, too, which might be why he sent instructions to Wycherley to help steel Amen-Ra’s Secretary and Senior Warden. He also signaled to Wycherley that it was time to be far less passive.

“I was willing that we should temporarily delay our activities to give an opportunity for inquiry, but Mr. Weiler has not seen fit to reply to the letter [from  Armour] of full information given to him, and a good deal of time has passed,” Cook wrote. “I therefore recommend that we proceed with our work and let the inquiry take its course.”

In other words, the October meeting of Amen-Ra should go ahead as planned.

Meanwhile, Armour apparently had a chance to speak with real legal counsel on the matter, which made her even more confident that the Order would prevail in this case as they had in all others previous. “It would seem they do not have a leg to stand on in the matter of Masonic emblems and no legal-minded committee of enquiry could uphold their claim to the exclusive right to such emblems,” Armour said in her 5 October letter to Cook.[11]

The follow-up meeting with Kersten occurred on 6 October lasted about two hours and followed a one-hour meeting between the Schmitts and Weiler. Potter did not attend, which means Kersten didn’t get the grand officers he’d asked for. Both meetings apparently took place in Kersten’s office, which suggests he was interested in the three Freemasons coming to some sort of amicable, not to mention Masonic, agreement.

Kersten challenged the Schmitts to prove that the origins of Co-Freemasonry are the same as those claimed by the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin. The Schmitts, naturally, had no trouble documenting that and again offered up a copy of Armour’s long, detailed letter.

In her letter to Cook a few days later, Marcella Schmitt reported that Kersten seemed to at times to favor the male-only Masons of Wisconsin’s and, at times, the Co-Masons. She also said that Weiler claimed that Co-Freemasonry was being “thoroughly investigated” by the Northern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite. Marcella recalled:

He said that the literature he had received proved nothing to him as to our validity and constantly he insisted that we were not entitled to use terminology. When we pointed out that any further questions should rightly be directed to the Very Ills.·.·. Bro.·. Armour, Mr. Weiler said that he would have the courtesy to answer her letter of September 5.

That sudden willingness on Weiler’s part to at least acknowledge a communication from the Grand Commander of North American Co-Freemasonry was an important concession and indicates he realized his position was crumbling. His next move was aimed at getting, likewise, at least one concession from the Co-Masons. Marcella Schmitt recalled in the same letter to Cook:

After we dispersed, Mr. Weiler walked out of the building with us. Although previously he spoke of the many attorneys in his Order, he said that he did not want to prosecute us, that it would be bad if Masonry were to be tried in the courts for too much about it would have to be revealed, that if we proved ourselves regular that would be a deciding factor, but we could not do so because of irregularity at its very inception – admitting women.

The Schmitts certainly had heard that canard before. Timid though they were, they could not have been impressed.

Weiler then hopped on a suggestion he and Kersten apparently made during the meeting, “that we retain the principles of our Order but  change the titles, insignia, etc. – this was their solution,” Marcella Schmitt wrote.

That was not going to happen anymore than the Grand Lodge was going to retain the principles of their Order but change the titles, insignia, etc. It was grasping for straws that Co-Masons were never going to offer.

The Schmitts walked away from the meeting with a dubious victory: “permission” from Kersten that the meetings of Amen-Ra could continue. Kersten also, finally, accepted that extra copy of Armour’s letter that Cook had the Schmitts take with them.

Neither side got everything that they wanted but the rights Co-Masons in Milwaukee had been recognized and preserved. In his letter to Armour on 18 October, Cook said the entire storm might blow over if “the Masons will just quite down.”

Amen-Ra met in October and November without issue and almost another month passed with no update from anyone, including Kersten. Marcella Schmitt wrote to the Deputy District Attorney on 13 December seeking his “assurances that we will encounter no further difficulties.”

The Schmitts received no reply from Kersten and, with Cook’s nod, decided to try again to rent the Odd Fellows Hall for future meetings. However, the rental agent for the hall informed the Schmitts that “the case has not been dropped” and the hall, for which the Co-Masons had already paid still would be denied them.[12]

That didn’t last. There is a gap in the remaining record, we can’t be sure what happened but the Milwaukee Co-Masons were eventually allowed to rent the Odd Fellows Hall for their meeting, starting in February of 1944[13].

Part of Cook’s remarks to the Brothers of Amen-Ra at their January meeting, which he attended, remain. Cook said in his 2 February 1944 letter to Armour:

I reminded them that in a sense they had run up against opposition and resentment not unlike that confronting the founders of the Order who sought to promote the interests and place of women in the affairs of Masonry and the  world. That is was in fact the same intolerance and sex discrimination that was rooted in the attitude of opposition that had temporarily stood in their way in their efforts to establish themselves in a lodge hall. That they were to be  congratulated upon having overcome the difficulty thus far, but that they should continue a vigorous fight for their rights as citizens and as Masons, if such were necessary, for they must continue to emulate the pioneers who sought to establish human freedom without distinction

As for Lodge Amen-Ra No. 584, it continues to labor in Milwaukee.

[1] See Cook’s 2 February letter to Edith Armour, then Grand Commander of North American Co-Freemasonry. Unless otherwise noted, all documents cited in this paper are preserved in the archives of the Honorable Order of Universal Freemasonry, the American Federation of Human Rights

[2] See Annette Schmitt’s 20 August 1943 letter to Cook.

[3] For Weiler’s Masonic credentials, see page 138 of “Official Proceedings of the Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of Wisconsin, 2008”, available online here.

[4] Chicago Daily Tribune 10 December 1918 page 14 and his record with Milwaukee County Chaper of War Mothers of America, available online here.

[5] See editorial page of 9 September 1952 Waukesha Daily Freeman.

[6] He was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason 12 December, 1921 in Henry L. Palmer Lodge No. 301, according to the October 2010 edition of Templegram, a publication of the Northwest Masonic Center in Wauwotosa, Wisconsin, available online here. In the remaining record, his name sometimes is spelled “Kluchevsky” but Kluchesky appears to be the correct spelling.

[7] The comment is referred to in Wycherley’s 8 September letter to Cook, which does not specify which police officer made the remark.

[8] Annette Schmitt’s letter to Ann Werth 23 August 1943.

[9] Armour’s 26 September 1943 letter to Cook.

[10] “The Very Illustrious Bro” would have been correct, which proves that even the most experienced  Freemason doesn’t always bother with minutia.

[11] This letter seems to no longer exist or at least it has not yet turned up in the archives in Larkspur. The archive does include an excerpt from that letter, which includes this reference.

[12] See 10 January 1944 letter of Odd Fellows Temple Renting Agent to Annette Schmitt.

[13] See cook’s 2 February 1944 letter to Armour.

 

 

The Bond of Friendship: Brother Nellie McCool and Brother Ursula Monroe

The Bond of Friendship: Brother Nellie McCool and Brother Ursula Monroe

Friendships often are forged in Masonry but very few are as strong and long-lasting as that of Ursula Monroe and Nellie McCool, both Brothers of the 33rd Degree and members of the Supreme  Council of the Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry. “We met in a book store in Colorado Springs,” Monroe recalled during a recent joint interview. 

Their friendship now is in its fifth decade. The two, pictured above with McCool on the left and with Bro. Olimpia Sandoval in the center, have remained close since they regularly attend Lodge and various Masonic functions together. They also live across the hall from each other in separate apartments in the same building in Castle Rock, Colorado, very near the Order’s headquarters in Larkspur.

Ursula as a Berlin Philosophy professor before WWII

Ursula Monroe in 1943


“Friendships in Freemasonry are some of the strongest you will find,” McCool said.

Monroe was born on June 28th, 1919 in Berlin, Germany. She earned her degree in Philosophy and became a college professor. Unfortunately, she, as did many, suffered greatly during World War II.

McCool was born January 25th, 1922 in Lahunta, Oklahoma, and she grew up in Beaver, Oklahoma and Colorado Springs, Colorado with her older brother, Harry McCool.

Nellie's 1945 college yearbook photo

Nellie McCool’s 1945 college yearbook photo.

Shortly after graduating from high school, with the United State’s entry into World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, both McCool siblings became aviators.

Lt. Harry McCool was part of Doolittle’s famous raid over Tokyo and later flew missions over Europe. 

Nellie McCool received her aviation training at Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas, where she was among the Class 44-7-Trainees and became a member of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs), achieving the rank of Captain in the U.S. Air Force Reserves. 

“Our motto was ‘We live in the wind and sand…and our eyes are on the stars,” McCool recalled.

Nellie as a WASP

Nellie McCool as a WASP

Ursula’s life took a turn shortly after the war was over. “I married a G.I.,” she recalled. Her marriage to Clifford Monroe brought her to the U.S. and also gave her that first brush with Freemasonry. “My husband was a Freemason,” she said. “I supported him in that. I didn’t know much about it then. I thought it was only for men.”

Through the years, Monroe also indulged a love for travel and experiences. In 1969, she was adopted by the Sioux Red Cloud Clan tribe at Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota in honor of her translation into German a book about one of their Chiefs: Chief Eagle. She was given the name  “Pte Sanaki Napewin,” which translates into English as “She who brings out white buffalo cow.”

“I used to love to travel,” she said with a laugh. “Now I’m too lazy.” She earned her Ph.D. in English and was a professor in the department of Humanities at Colorado College until she retired.

McCool’s life also changed after World War II ended. The WASPs were disbanded, and McCool soon found herself back in school. She attended Colorado College, majoring in Psychology. She later earned her Ph.D. in the field. She became a teacher at several Colorado-area schools, including North Junior High, South Security School, and Harrison Senior High School. Later, she was supervisor of Vocational Guidance for the State Board of Community Colleges and Occupational Education.

Ursula during one of her many travels and experiences

Ursula Monroe on one of her many travels

Monroe’s life took yet another turn in 1972 when her husband died. A few years after that, she met an associate of Manly P. Hall. That associate introduced her to Co-Freemasonry, though it was not her first understanding of the Craft. 

“I was always interested,” Monroe said. “I had to make that first contact. You have to be around Freemasons and know Freemasons before you can become a Freemason.”

She did just that in 1979, Initiated on April 14th of that year in Lodge Amor-Sapientia in Pasadena, California. She was Passed the following 12th of August and then Raised on the 3rd of August 1980. She became Master of Kiva Lodge in Colorado Springs. On November 16th, 1998, she became a member of the Supreme Council and serves with on that body today.

It was a few years after Monroe was made a Mason that she had that fateful meeting with McCool in a Colorado Springs-area book store. “It turned out we were living in the same area,” Monroe said.

The friendship blossomed from there. It wasn’t long after that Monroe introduced McCool to Co-Freemasonry. McCool was intrigued enough to go have a look at the Order’s headquarters in Larkspur, about an hour from her home then in Colorado Springs. “I drove there and had a look at the building,” she said. “It just felt right.”

She certainly was interested, McCool said. “I was very excited,” she said. “I was happy to have found a Masonry that accepted women as well as men.”

McCool was initiated soon after, and ever since, they have been Masonically together. If Monroe goes to a meeting, McCool does, too. If McCool does something related to Masonry, Monroe will be there, too. Brothers in the Order see the two as inseparable, where one turns up the other will soon follow.

Both took part in the funeral of then Grand Commander Helen Wycherly in May of 1993 at the Headquarters Temple in Larkspur. Monroe was Orator that day while McCool was Junior Deacon. Today, both serve on the Orders’ Supreme Council. McCool also became a member of the Order’s Grand Council of Administration when she succeeded John Tzaras, who passed to the Grand Lodge Eternal on October 23, 2009.

“It’s a way of life,” McCool said. “I can no longer imagine not being a Mason.”


 

 

Rare Manuscript in Jeopardy: The Future of The York Manuscript No. 4

Rare Manuscript in Jeopardy: The Future of The York Manuscript No. 4

A painfully rare and important treasure of Freemasonry is in trouble.

The York Manuscript (MS) No. 4, long in the care of York Lodge 236, itself well within sight of the York Minister, is deteriorating.

There are breaks and cracks along the edges of this precious document, and it can no longer bear close inspection. Very good copies of York MS No. 4 exist, but the original itself is in real danger of passing away. The Brothers of York Lodge 236 are actively looking for advice about how best to conserve the roll.

York MS No. 4 is important to Freemasonry because it is a rare document that describes the ritual and history of operative masonry, to which Freemasonry can claim at least some connection. The roll, however, is also of great importance for the history of women in Freemasonry because this document contains a very critical word that has for generations caused discomfort for a large number of male-only Freemasons.

That word is “shee.”

The manuscript itself, a copy taken from a far older document, dates to 1693 and tells the story of how Edwin, King of Northumbria, was made a Mason at York. While doing that, the document also described how it was done in that assembly.

A crucial portion of those instructions reads (with my italics; please see copy above):

“The one of the elders takeing the Booke and that hee or shee that is to be made mason shall lay their hands thereon, and the charge shall be given.”

The journey to see this document with my own eyes began in March of 2008 when I viewed a very good copy at the Provincial Grand Lodge of East Lancashire in Manchester.

That copy, an image of which is reproduced here, was so good that I mistook it for the original and so described it in my first book

I was alerted to my error earlier this year and soon had an invitation to come to York and see the York MS No. 4 for myself.

Senior Warden Joe Postill, along with Junior Warden and Acting Librarian Graham Kaye, BEM, were my hosts that beautiful spring day in May. York Lodge 236 has been in possession of the roll since it was donated to the Lodge in 1736 by Francis Drake, York’s first historian and author of his own “History and Antiquities of Yorkshire.”

York Roll unrolled a little

York Roll No. 4 is not the only treasure preserved by York Lodge 236. The Lodge also holds portions of York Rolls No. 1 and No. 2, which together provide the earliest references to nonoperative masons in the guild at York. The Lodge also preserves splendid old tracing boards, other artifacts, and even has beautiful editions – with hand illuminated frontispieces – of Robert Gould’s “History of Freemasonry”.

Of course, I was there to see York Roll No. 4, and my hosts did remove it for me from its container and unrolled it a little ways. However, it soon was clear the roll simply cannot bear too much handling, and it was safely returned to its container. I didn’t get to see that critical sentence, detailed above, for myself but I’ve no doubt it’s there. Perhaps, one day, after it is somehow conserved, I will have a chance to do so.

York MS No. 4’s importance to the history of women in operative and speculative masonry in particular, and modern Freemasonry in general, cannot be overestimated.

This crucial roll, along with other very rare old documents, points up a fact that some male-only Masons would prefer be otherwise: that there was no bar to women’s membership in the old operative guilds.

In fact, the exclusion of women was an innovation introduced by male-only Masons eager that there be no women not only in male-only lodges but also none in their own female-only lodges or in mixed lodges elsewhere. While there is no period in modern Freemasonry in which there is not at least one woman Freemason documented somewhere in the world, the Craft was well into its second century before the lodge doors became more generally open to women. It remains a difficult struggle in many parts of the world even to the present day.

For this reason, York MS No. 4’s deteriorating condition amounts to an emergency that needs to be addressed by those who know how. I most certainly hope that happens.

Co-Masonic Order Resumes “Universal” as Part of its Official International Name

Co-Masonic Order Resumes “Universal” as Part of its Official International Name

The Order for decades called “The Honorable Order of American Co-Masonry” now is “The Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry.” The decision follows a vote by the Order’s Grand Consistory and Lodges, with 95 percent of the Lodges and 100 percent of the Consistory approving the proposition. The vote was ratified by a unanimous vote of the Supreme Council on April 25th, 2017. 

“Universal has a geographical implication of being all over the globe, but also that we allow membership of all races, creeds, religions, sexual orientations, etc.,” Matias Cumsille, President of the Order’s Corporate wing, the American Federation of Human Rights, said in an email.

The corporate name remains the same.

The word “Universal” was part of the Order’s original name during its beginnings in North America, where the first Co-Masonic Lodge on the continent was founded in 1903. The word “Universal” first appears in Co-Masonic history with the founding of “The Order of Universal Co-Freemasonry in Great Britian and the British Dependencies” by Annie Besant in 1902.

That Order operated under the umbrella the French-based “Maçonnerie Mixte”, today know as The International Order of Freemasonry for Men and Women, Le Droit Humain. The North American Order then was Le Droit Humain’s American Federation.

“Universal” likewise became part of the North American Federation’s name and seems to have intermittently continued into the 1940s. An investigation into why the word “Universal” ultimately was replaced turned up no certain answers. North American Co-Masonry remained part of Le Droit Humain until a separation during a protracted and often contentious legal proceeding in the 1990s.

The Order in North America has since operated as an independent Masonic body, “The Honorable Order of American Co-Masonry,” operating out of its long-time headquarters in Larkspur, Colorado. Le Droit Humain, for its part, established a new American Federation chartered in Delaware.

Over the past decade, American Co-Masonry expanded outside its traditional North American boundaries and today includes Lodges in South America. That expansion made the time right to assume a visibly international identity and resume use of the word “Universal” in place of “American,” Cumsille said.

Photo: Cover of one of the first ritual books used in American Co-Masonry, including the original use of “Universal” as part of the Order’s original name.